1st chapter of Charaka Indriya sthana offers about indicators and signs of imminent loss of life as indicated by complexion and voice. The chapter identify is Varnaswareeya Indriyam.
Now we will expound the chapter on “Indicators and Signs of Imminent Dying as Indicated by complexion and Voice”. Thus mentioned Lord Atreya[1-2]
Learn – Acharya Charaka – Work, Samhita, Legacy, Chapters, Description
Dedication of residual span of life
Under talked about are the vital components which must be examined by the doctor who needs to know the residual life span of the affected person by the use of direct statement, inferential data and scriptural testimony –
Complexion, voice, odor, style, contact, eyes, ears, nostril, tongue, pores and skin, thoughts, want, purity, conduct, achara – refined habits, reminiscence, form, nature, vikrti – morbidity, energy, exhaustion, intelligence, harsha – exhilaration, dryness, unctuousness, drowsiness, onset of ailments, heaviness, lightness, qualities, weight loss plan, regimens, digestion of meals, upaya – assortment of ailments, apaya – disappearance of the illness abruptly, with none purpose, premonitory options of the illness, ache, issues, lustre, shadow, desires, unhealthy omens seen by the doctor, unhealthy omens seen by the physician on his technique to the affected person’s home, unhealthy omens on the affected person’s home, obstruction of medicines and faulty medicines / absence of results of drugs 
Learn – Arishta Lakshanas – Ominous Indicators And Signs Indicating Dangerous Prognosis
Technique of examination
Amongst among the components described within the above verse a few of them relate to the sufferers and another components don’t relate to them. Scriptural inscriptions and inference are the 2 instruments which assist in ascertaining the components which don’t relate to the sufferers. The components that are associated to sufferers ought to be ascertained from their pure and unnatural (morbid) tendencies. 
Numerous forms of Prakrti (pure disposition)
Relying on the distinct options of the beneath talked about, the pure disposition is of six classes –
- Caste e.g. purity amongst Brahmanas
- Household e.g. purity with regard to character and conduct in an excellent household
- Geography e.g. manifested resulting from being born in a selected locality, nation or geographical area e.g. folks dwelling in Banga / Vanga area are mental.
- Time issue e.g. purity within the Satya Yuga i.e the primary epoch / good energy in visarga kala i.e. within the monsoon, autumn and early winter seasons and deficit energy in adana kala i.e. late winter, spring and summer time
- Age issue e.g. predominance of kapha in childhood, predominance of pitta within the adolescence and maturity and predominance of vata in previous age
- Individuality / private issue – relies on the physique, thoughts and sense organs of a person and is totally different in numerous people 
Learn – Dangerous Prognosis Based mostly On Scent, Contact, Style, Color And Voice
Numerous forms of Vikrti (unnatural disposition)
The morbid situation is of three sorts, viz
Lakshana nimitta – brought on by bodily marks
Lakshya nimitta – brought on by etiological components and
Nimittanurupa – brought on by such components which resemble the etiological components 
Bodily marks as indicative of unnatural disposition
If the bodily marks point out sure morbid circumstances on account of previous actions they’re known as as Lakshana Nimitta. There are specific bodily marks / indicators / signs which throughout the maturation of excellent or unhealthy deeds get settled in some elements of the physique and provides rise to morbidities in the end of time. [7-i]
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Etiological components as indicative of unnatural disposition
If the morbid circumstances are brought on by etiological components as described in Nidana part they are going to be often known as Lakshya nimitta e.g. aggravation of Vata as a result of consumption of dry meals and so on etiological components. Instance – there are 4 causes / etiological components of rajayakshma i.e. extreme indulgence in herculean actions, forcible withholding of pure urges, depletion of physique tissues and consuming meals in erratic / faulty manner. [7-ii]
Components resembling etiological components
These are the deformities / premonitory signs which serve the perform (goal, goal) of etiological components i.e. producing a illness and giving the data of the illness. Such unnatural conditions i.e. signs are often known as Nimittanurupa.
In actual sense they don’t seem to be causative components. However they undoubtedly function yardsticks in measuring the life span of people. Other than this they’re additionally indicators of loss of life ensuing from diminution of life span. Subsequently the data of those unnatural conditions (signs) is of utmost significance. They assist the physicians in ascertaining the life span of a person which can’t be decided or confirmed by different instruments of examination.
We will describe such signs that are manifested in an individual who’s in very shut proximity of loss of life (loss of life is sort of ascertained). On this occasion it’s acknowledged briefly however shall be defined in better element within the later contexts of the part. 
Regular and irregular complexion
There are 4 forms of pure complexions –black, bluish, bluish white and white
There are additionally another forms of pure complexions. They should be ascertained by similarities (colours much like the above talked about) or from the directions of consultants.
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There are 5 forms of unnatural complexions- blue, gray, coppery, inexperienced and albino (abnormally white)
Equally, there are another unnatural forms of complexions that are produced anew. They too should be understood on the premise of their similarity with the above talked about irregular complexions. Equally if the pure complexion which was bestowed at start adjustments in later a part of one’s life, that complexion too shall be thought-about as irregular.
Thus the traditional (pure) and irregular (unnatural) complexions in physique are described. 
Mixture of regular and irregular complexions indicating imminent loss of life:
It could so occur that half of the physique could have pure complexion and the opposite half of the physique would have unnatural complexion and each these complexions are demarcated by an excellent demarcating line. These regular and irregular complexions concurrently showing in proper and left sides, back and front sides, higher and decrease elements or inside and exterior elements of the physique ought to be thought-about as indicators of imminent loss of life for a given particular person.
Pure and unnatural complexions could concurrently seem within the face and different elements of the physique; additionally they point out imminent loss of life of the person. 
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Related different components:
The outline pertaining to the complexion additionally applies to different indicators like emaciation and plumpness in addition to dryness and unctuousness. 
Different morbid indicators indicating imminent loss of life
Equally, the looks of any one of many beneath talked about on the face of the affected person is indicative of imminent loss of life – Piplu (port- wine mark), Vyanga (freckles), Tilakalaka (black mole) and Pidaka (Pimple) 
Look of any one of many irregular colors in nails, eyes, urine, stool, fingers, legs and lips (as described in Para 9 of this chapter) is indicative of imminent loss of life whether it is related to diminution of energy, complexion and sensory notion 
Different morbid circumstances
Sudden and unintended look of another uncommon morbid complexion is at all times indicative of rising weak point of the affected person. They due to this fact seem within the type of premonitory indicators of imminent loss of life. 
Learn – Dangerous Prognosis Based mostly On Premonitory Signs Of Illness – Purvarupiya Arishta
Regular and irregular voice
The conventional human voice resembles the voice of a number of of the beneath talked about Hamsa (swan), Kaauna (demoiselle crane), Nemi (wheel), Dundubi (Kettle drum), Kalavinka (home sparrow), Kaka (crow), Kapota (dove) and Jarjara (a sort of drum)
There are another forms of pure voices which might be ascertained by similarities or from the directions of consultants. The voice of moribund sufferers resembles that of sheep (orwild Goat) and is feeble, inaudible, vague, chocked, hoarse and painful and unclear. Equally, there are another unnatural forms of sounds that are produced anew. Thus the traditional and irregular forms of voice of the person are defined. 
Learn – Function of Vata Dosha And Its Sorts In Speech And Voice
Morbidity in voice indication imminent loss of life
The beneath talked about forms of voice associated abnormalities too point out imminent loss of life –
– if the irregular kind of voice manifest spontaneously or
– in a person there are various such irregular forms of voices or
– if just one irregular voice within the particular person seems to be of various sorts
Thus the morbidity pertaining to voice is defined. 
So the matters on complexion and voice are correctly described with a view to supply data relating to moribund individuals. 
The next are the signs of moribund individuals:
– Look of irregular complexion in your complete or half of the physique of the person with none (seen) trigger;
– If in half of the face there may be blue, blackish, coppery or tawny color and the color of the reaming half is in any other case
– Manifestation of unctuousness in a single half of the face and roughness within the different half
– Look of plumpness in a single half of the face and emaciation within the different half
– Spontaneous look of varied forms of Tila (black Mole), Piplu (Port wine mark), Vyanga (freckles) and Raji (spots like Mustard) within the face of the affected person
– Look of flower life spots in nails and enamel, and sticky and powder like substance within the enamel;
– Discoloration of lips, legs, heels, eyes, urine, stool and nails of the affected person when he’s diminished of energy
– When each the lips change into bluish just like the rip fruits of Jambu (Syzygium Cumini Skeels) and
– Sudden manifestation of single or a number of morbidities within the voice in a weak affected person.
Such different abnormalities within the voice and complexion of a person who’s devoid of energy and flesh additionally point out imminent loss of life. [17-25]
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Numerous forms of morbidity pertaining to complexion and voice are described right here with a view to ascertaining within the indicators and signs of moribund sufferers one who is aware of this doesn’t tumble in verify the span of life. 
Thus ends the primary chapter on indicators and signs of Imminent Dying as indicated by complexion and voice of Indriya part of Agnivesha’s work as redacted by Charaka.