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Shodhana And Ropana That means, Scientific Significance, Varieties

By Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ay) & Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S
Shodhana and Ropana are the fifth and sixth types of remedy classes included in ‘Sapta Upakrama’ i.e. 7 forms of remedies defined by Grasp Sushruta. They purpose at therapeutic and treating the ulcers, wounds and swelling associated to those situations and likewise to stop the issues of the identical.
Learn – Sushruta’s 7 Kinds of Therapies Sapta Upakrama

Shodhana and Ropana
“Fifth of all shodhna ought to be executed and the sixth measure can be ropana”
Shodhana means cleaning. Ropana means Therapeutic. Each these teams of remedies are mentioned collectively.

13 remedy strategies from amongst the listing of 60 remedies talked about underneath shashti upakrama are included underneath shodhana and ropana measures. They need to be selectively utilized by the surgeon in treating the ulcers and wounds as per their situation, manifestation and presentation.

Anyhow shodhana and ropana, although defined collectively, they’re talked about as separate remedies amongst the sapta upakrama. Shodhana and Ropana serve comparable function. In reality ropana occurs after shodhana. Even after cleaning the ulcers and wounds with shodhana if they don’t heal correctly, the subsequent measure i.e. ropana ought to be resorted to. Ropana will likely be individually thought of in one other article.
Learn – Charaka Vrana Chikitsa – twenty fifth Chapter – Wounds, Ulcers

Sanskrit Verses


Primarily 13 remedies are included underneath shodhana and ropana from amongst the 60 remedies talked about in Shashti Upakrama.

Sl No Title of the Upakrama (remedy) That means
1 Sandhana union of fractures
2 Peedana compression
3 Shonita sthapana stopping the bleeding, enabling correct circulation
4 Nirvapana software and showering of chilly efficiency medicines
5 Utkarika software of heat, semi-solid vata assuaging medicinal pastes to deal with wound irritation and necrosis of wounds
6 Kashaya use of natural decoctions
7 Varti use of suppositories
8 Kalka software of natural pastes
9 Sarpi use of medicated ghee
10 Taila use of medicated oils
11 Rasakriya administration of semi-solid medicinal extracts
12 Avachurnana sprinkling of natural powders
13 Vrana Dhupana fumigation of wounds

Learn – Shashti Upakrama That means, Classification, Scientific Significance

1. Sandhana – union of fractures

Situations by which union must be executed – The identical situations defined within the context of seevana included in Patana group of remedies are relevant for union of fractures additionally. They’re –

  • Apaka upadruta – ulcers not related to issues of suppuration
  • Mamsa sthita – ulcers localized within the muscle tissue
  • Vivrta – open ulcers

2. Peedana – compression

Situations by which compression must be executed –

  • Puya Garbha – having pus pockets (ulcers crammed and surrounded by pus)
  • Anu dwaran – ulcers / wounds having small openings
  • Marma gatan vranan – ulcers situated on important organs, tissues)

The way to compress the ulcers and wounds?
When these situations persist, paste of herbs used for compression is utilized over and across the ulcer in order that it’s compressed.

The natural paste utilized over the ulcer / wound is allowed to dry in place. When the opening of the ulcer / swelling are minute, the paste of herbs shouldn’t be utilized over the orifice. When the opening of the wound / ulcer / swelling isn’t lined the doshas (pus and many others) amassed in them maintain draining because of the compression imparted on them by the medicinal paste.
Learn – Harm, Wound care Ayurvedic Cures, Medicines

3. Shonita Sthapana – stopping the bleeding

When extreme and uncontrolled bleeding happens as a consequence of procedures like bloodletting or in any other case, the bleeding ought to be instantly checked by administering the shonita sthapana vidhi i.e. measures for controlling the bleeding as defined within the earlier contexts (Su.Su.Ch14).

4 efficient strategies of checking extreme bleeding from ulcers / wounds are –

4. Nirvapana – software and showering of chilly efficiency medicines

Situations by which chilly efficiency medicines ought to be showered on the ulcers – As a result of extreme aggravation of pitta when the ulcer / wound will get related and stricken with burning sensation, suppuration and fever and vitiation of blood, the ulcers ought to be washed / showered / utilized with medicines having chilly efficiency.

‘The medicines used to pacify the ache and different signs related to the ulcers attributable to vitiated pitta and blood, which is within the means of getting suppurated, and related to fever are known as as nirvapana’.

Kinds of Nirvapana – Nirvapana is of two sorts. They’re

  • Seka – showering the ulcers and wounds with medicinal liquids
  • Lepa – anointment of the ulcers and wounds with medicinal paste

The way to do?
The herbs of chilly efficiency ought to be floor in milk, combined with ghee and utilized on the ulcer within the type of skinny paste. The identical medication is used for showering the ulcer.

5. Utkarika – software of heat, semi-solid, vata assuaging medicinal pastes to deal with wound irritation and necrosis of wounds

Situations by which heat pastes is utilized on the ulcers / wounds –

  • Kshina Mamsa – depleted and thinned out muscle tissue within the neighborhood of ulcers
  • Tanu srava – ulcers with skinny exudates
  • Apaka vrana – ulcers which aren’t suppurating
  • Toda – ulcers related to pricking ache
  • Kathinya – hardness across the ulcers
  • Parushya – roughness across the ulcers
  • Shula – ulcers related to ache
  • Vepathu – ulcers related to tremors

The way to do?
Bhadradarvadi group of herbs (herbs which remedy vitiated vata), Amla gana (bitter group of issues), Kakolyadi Gana group of herbs and oily seeds is processed to organize heat paste which is semisolid and utilized on the stricken website in order to offer sudation. Sudation ought to be executed over the motionless, painful, foul smelling, decaying and slimy ulcers.
Learn – 4 Varieties Of Swedana As Per Sushruta And Vagbhata

6. Kashaya – use of natural decoctions

Shodhana Kashaya – Natural decoctions having ‘cleaning motion’ solely shall be used for this function. The aim is to result in cleaning the injuries and ulcers.

The under talked about herbs could also be thought of for making ready the cleaning decoctions –

Situations by which cleaning natural decoctions ought to be administered in treating the ulcers and wounds –

  • Antah shalyan, anu mukhan – ulcers having international object inside them and still have minute opening
  • Gambhiran – deep seated ulcers
  • Mamsa samshritan – ulcers situated within the muscle tissue

7, 8 Varti – suppositories and Kalka – natural pastes

Situations by which suppositories and natural pastes are administered for cleaning the injuries – The suppositories (wicks) and natural pastes are utilized in the identical situations and are ready with the identical herbs. Beneath talked about are the situations for his or her utilization –

  • Puti mamsa pratichchannan – ulcers lined with decayed muscle tissue
  • Mahadosha – in extreme aggravation of doshas

Herbs that are used for cleaning functions are utilized in each these remedies.

Kalka – The natural pastes also needs to be ready utilizing the identical herbs with which the suppositories are ready. As many herbs accessible shall be used. When utilizing the suppositories the skinny, thick, thicker and thickest forms of wicks shall be utilized in that order in accordance with the ulcer being handled. The doctor / surgeon shall decide in order to by which situation the suppositories / wicks ought to be used and by which situations the pastes must be utilized.
Learn – Pakwashaya Shodhana Basti: Medicated Enemas For Colon Cleanse

9. Sarpi – use of medicated ghee

Situations by which medicated ghee ought to be used –

  • Pitta pradushtan – ulcers contaminated by vitiated pitta
  • Gambhiran – ulcers that are deep seated
  • Daha paka prapiditan – ulcers troubled by (affiliation of) burning sensation and suppuration

When the above talked about situations prevail within the ulcers / wounds, cleaning ghee ready with cotton seeds (Gossypium herbaceum Linn) ought to be used.

10. Taila – use of medicated oil

Situations by which medicated oil must be used –

  • Utsanna mamsan – elevated muscle tissue across the wounds and ulcers
  • Asnigdhan – dried out ulcers / wounds
  • Alpa sravan – ulcers / wounds having much less (scanty) discharges

Ulcers related to the above talked about situations shall be cleansed utilizing sesame / mustard oil ready with herbs having cleaning property.

11. Rasakriya – semi-solid medicinal extracts

Situations by which semi strong natural extracts must be used –

  • Tailena ashuddhyamananam – these ulcers / wounds which can’t be cleansed by administering cleaning oils
  • Sthira mamsanam – stiff / unmovable muscle tissue across the ulcers

Within the above situations of ulcers cleaning rasakriya (rasakriya ready with cleansing herbs).

The way to put together Rasakriya?
The herbs having cleansing properties are taken and their decoction is ready. This decoction is as soon as once more processed and added with alum, inexperienced vitriol, realgar and orpiment. Later this ought to be completely combined with juice of Citrus medica and honey. The resultant semi-solid preparation is known as rasakriya. This ought to be administered / utilized for cleaning the injuries related to above talked about situations. This shall be used as soon as in three days.
Learn – Rasanjan Makes use of, Cures, Dose, Aspect Results, Analysis

12. Avachurnana – sprinkling / dusting of natural powders

Situations by which dusting of natural powders must be executed –

  • Medo jushtan – ulcers attributable to vitiated fats (ulcers having fats)
  • Agambhiran – ulcers which aren’t deep (superficial ulcers and wounds)
  • Durgandhan – ulcers having foul scent

The way to do?
The wonderful powder ready from herbs having cleaning property (identical as these used to organize varti – suppositories) is sprinkled / dusted on the ulcers and wounds with above talked about situations. 

13. Vrana Dhupana – fumigation of ulcers

Situations by which fumigation of ulcers must be executed

  • Vatatmakan – ulcers stricken by vitiated vata
  • Ugra rujan – ulcers related to extreme ache
  • Saasravan – ulcers related to discharges

For fumigation linen, barley, ghee and fumigation herbs Pinus roxburghii, Vateria indica and many others are used.


The above talked about measures of shodhana and ropana are helpful in cleaning and therapeutic the injuries and ulcers. Shodhana ought to be executed first and after the injuries have been cleansed correctly ropana ought to be resorted to for in depth and complete therapeutic of ulcers and wounds.

Shodhana, following the chronology ought to be executed after patana (excision and different set of surgical strategies). Following Ropana now we have Vaikrutapaha – the seventh amongst the Sapta Upakrama which includes of 26 remedies aimed toward eradicating the deformities, issues and sequels of ulcers and wounds, a type of beauty rebuilding.

Ropana, as already talked about are defined within the circulate by Grasp Sushruta instantly after having defined the measures of shodhana. He has not included it amongst the 60 remedies and therefore doesn’t get a quantity from amidst 1 to 60.

Shodhana measures defined above too are therapeutic in nature however since ropana measures have individually been highlighted by grasp Sushruta with out numbering it, we have to think about it as a separate remedy process. Anyhow it will get a quantity amongst the shad upakramas i.e. 6th among the many seven remedies which the identical writer has defined in sutra sthana chapter 17.
Click on to Seek the advice of Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ayu)

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